Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 78(2): 217-243, doi: 10.26049/ASP78-2-2020-02
Revisited phylogeny of Scleroderminae (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) reveals a plastic evolutionary history
expand article infoJuan M. Vargas R., Wesley Dondoni Colombo§, Celso Oliveira Azevedo|
‡ Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA, Bogotá, Colombia§ Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil| Universidade Federal do Espirito Sant, Vitoria ES, Brazil
Open Access
The first comprehensive phylogenetic study of Scleroderminae with all 30 valid genera is presented. It is based on 138 morphological characters. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the subfamily Scleroderminae. All genus-level clades are monophy-letic, except Cephalonomia . The extensive homoplasy across the topology is regarded as evidence of the high morphological diversity in the subfamily. Thlastepyris marquisensis stat. et comb.n. are transferred from the bethyline subspecies Sierola depressa marquisensis with species status. The traditional characters historically used in the taxonomy of Scleroderminae were mapped onto the new topology, such as body flatness, number of flagellomeres, size shape of wings and the length of 2r-rs&Rs vein of the forewing, and were shown to be highly homoplastic. Five new genera and their respective type species are proposed, described, and illustrated as follows: Decemnoxus infrequens gen. et sp.n., Longinoxus inusitatus gen. et sp.n., Madanoxus patulus gen. et sp.n., Mutatio mutata gen. et sp.n., and Pilocutis mollis gen. et sp.n., the former four from Madagascar and the latter from Thailand. Madagascar plays an important role in the evolutionary history of Scleroderminae by having several odd morphological pattern and endemic fauna.
Host inference, Madagascar, New genera, Polymorphism, Sexual dimorphism, Synapomorphy-less genera