Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 68(1): 3-33, doi: 10.3897/asp.68.e31707
Simultaneous analysis and the origin of eusociality in the Vespidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera)
expand article infoKurt M. Pickett, James M. Carpenter
‡ University of Vermont, Burlington
Open Access
A review of the literature concerning the phylogenetics of the Vespidae is presented. We also present a new phylogenetic analysis of the Vespidae based on what is by far the largest taxon sample to include molecular data, and the largest phenotypic character dataset ever compiled. Relationships among the subfamilies are Euparagiinae + (Masarinae + (Eumeninae + (Stenogastrinae + (Polistinae + Vespinae)))), with all the subfamilies monophyletic. A single origin of eusociality is thus supported. Our results empirically supersede all previous treatments and should be the preferred scaffold of the family for studies of social behavior.
Polistes, Polybia, Eumeninae, solitary wasps, social wasps, congruence, direct optimization