Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 73(2): 281-301, doi: 10.3897/asp.73.e31805
A molecular phylogeny and classification of Anisoptera (Odonata)
expand article infoFrank Louis Carle, Karl M. Kjer, Michael L May
Open Access
A phylogeny of Anisoptera employing 510 representatives of 184 genera (of ca. 380) in 11 families is presented based on an analysis of over 10,000 nucleotides from portions of the large and small subunit nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal RNA’s, the mitochondrial protein coding genes COI and COII, and portions of the nuclear protein coding genes EF-1α and Histone H3. Ribosomal sequences were structurally aligned and sequences carefully checked to eliminate alignment errors, contamination, misidentification and paralogous gene amplicons. Both the RAxML and Bayesian topology based on consolidation of data at the generic level is ((Austropetaliidae, Aeshnidae), ((Gomphidae, Petaluridae), ((Chlorogomphidae, (Neopetaliidae, Cordulegastridae)), (Synthemistidae, (Macromiidae, (Corduliidae, Libellulidae)))))). As the positions of Petaluridae, Chlorogomphidae, Neopetaliidae, and Cordulegastridae are weakly supported, possible alternative hypotheses are discussed. New taxonomic groups established include: in Gomphidae, Stylogomphini trib.n. and Davidioidini trib.n., and in Libellulidae, Dythemistinae subfam.n. including Dythemistini trib.n., Pachydiplactini trib.n. and Elgini trib.n. New taxonomic arrangements include: placement of Hemigomphini in Ictinogomphinae, and provisional expansion of Synthemistidae to include Gomphomacromiinae and a number of genera formerly placed in several small subfamilies of Corduliidae. Idomacromiinae is placed sister to remaining Synthemistidae s.l. based on molecular analysis of Idomacromia Karsch and Oxygastra Selys. Hemicorduliidae and Macrodiplactidae are nested well within Corduliidae and Libellulidae, respectively, and therefore are not accorded family rank. Eleven monophyletic subdivisions of Libellulidae are tentatively recognized as subfamilies: Dythemistinae subfam.n.; Sympetrinae (including Leucorrhiniini and Rhyothemistini); Macrodiplactinae; Brachydiplactinae; Tetrathemistinae; Trameinae; Zyxommatinae; Palpopleurinae; Diastatopidinae; Pantalinae (including Trithemistini and Onychothemistini); and Libellulinae. Zygonychini is paraphyletic to and therefore included within Onychothemistini.
Anisoptera, Odonata, phylogeny, Austropetaliidae, Aeshnidae, Gomphidae, Petaluridae, Synthemistidae, Macromiidae, Corduliidae, Libellulidae,18S, 28S, 16S, 12S, COI, COII, EF-1α, H3, congruence